Universities, public agencies, and private companies all play a role in science and technology development, from basic research to product design. This section summarizes the best literature on transforming institutions to enhance gender equality.

Literature is presented in three sections:

  1. Disparities between Women and Men from salary gaps to vertical and horizontal segregation to rates of publishing, patenting, and other measures of productivity.
  2. Subtle Gender Bias that arises through stereotyping, stereotype threat, unequal burdens of housework, and other means.
  3. Solutions and Best Practices that have been implemented to transform institutions and create gender equality.